Military Retaliation in the Age of Cyber Warfare

The Obama administration has concluded that the recent Chinese cyberattack on the Office of Personnel Management rises above the level of traditional espionage, and that retaliation is the most suitable response to the theft of 20 million American’s personal information. Exactly what the retaliation may entail and when it will come, however, are open questions. Over the past year, United States government and military computer systems have been compromised by what many believe are foreign governments, including Russian attacks on the White House, State
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